133. Which country owned the Dutch West India Company?
A. England
B. West India
C. Netherlands
D. United States of America

134. What does the quote “govern you as a father his children” most closely mean?
A. Stuyvesant will take care and watch over the city
B. Stuyvesant will teach fathers how to raise children
C. Stuyvesant will govern men who have children
D. Stuyvesant will govern you personally as if he were your father

135. How did Peter Stuyvesant get his nickname?
A. He didn’t walk normally as a young child
B. He admired Captain Hook and wore a peg like him
C. He had a fight with a pirate and Stuyvesant threw the pirate’s peg into the ocean
D. He lost his leg in an attack

136. Why did citizens put up little resistance against the English?
A. They were instructed to do so by Stuyvesant
B. They didn’t like the regulations being set by Stuyvesant
C. They knew that the English would overpower them and there was no reason to put up a fight
D. The city was home to many ministers who believed violence is never the answer

137. Did Peter Stuyvesant believe in religion?
A. No, he claimed to be an atheist
B. No, he came to America to get away from those that tortured him for not having a religion
C. Yes, he punished people who weren’t part of the church
D. Yes, his father was a minister

138. According to the passage, what made Peter Stuyvesant’s governing different from previous directors of New Amsterdam?
A. He restored order and control in the city
B. He was richer than all of them
C. He accomplished more than other directors did
D. He left the city in bad condition

139. What modern day city services were originated by Stuyvesant in New Amsterdam?
A. Public transportation
B. Sanitation collection
C. Public housing
D. Free medical clinics

140. What could Peter Stuyvesant best be classified as?
A. Head of East India Trading Company
B. Governor of Netherlands
C. Dutch Ambassador
D. Mayor of New Amsterdam

Reading Comprehension

Read the following passage and answer questions 111 through 120.

Read the following passage and answer questions 121 through 130.

103) Why was the United Stated not involved in the war before the attack on Pearl Harbor?
A. US’s army wasn’t strong enough to go against their enemies
B. The government wanted the war to stay in Europe
C. Their allies instructed them not to do so
D. The US had no knowledge of the war


104) When did President Roosevelt declare war on Japan?
A. December 8, 1941
B. September 1, 1939
C. May 7, 1946
D. December 7, 1941


105) How did Japan carry out their attack on Pearl Harbor?
A. Using Japanese naval fleets
B. Using Japanese ground forces
C. Using Japanese satellites
D. Using Japanese bombers


106) How could the attack have been made worse?
A. If the United States knew about the attack
B. If Japan had a stronger general
C. If Japan worked alongside Germany
D. If the Pacific Fleet remained at Pearl Harbor


107) What was the President Roosevelt’s attitude after the attack?
A. Ashamed
B. Discouraged
C. Determined
D. Amused


108) Why did officials believe Japan wouldn’t attack Pearl Harbor?
A. Japan didn’t have strong bombs to attack with
B. Hawaii was far away from Japan
C. Japan and United States were allies
D. The area was highly secured

109) Why did Japan attack Pearl Harbor?
A. To help resolve economic issues
B. To show their countries strength
C. To test their new nuclear bombs
D. To figure out America’s strategies


110) How long did the attack last?
A. 10 minutes
B. 6 hours
C. 2 hours
D. 2 days

61) What is the passage mostly about?
A. PGD is better than PGS
B. The reason why insurance companies don’t cover PGS
C. General information about PGS
D. A doctor’s opinion about PGS


62) All are good candidates for PGS except
A. A 23-year- old woman that already gave birth to a healthy baby
B. A woman that failed multiple pregnancy cycles without knowing why
C. A 39-year- old woman trying to get pregnant
D. A woman that had multiple miscarriages


63) How are PGS and PGD similar?
A. Both test the embryo for known problems
B. PGS and PGS are different names for the same process
C. Both are performed in a hospital
D. Both test the embryo before it is implanted


64) What would happen if you removed a cell from a part other than where the placenta would form?
A. It doesn’t matter where the cell is taken out, so nothing would happen
B. Vital parts of the embryo could be removed or tampered with, causing damage to
the embryo
C. The embryo will become smaller in size
D. You can create another embryo with the cells that were removed


65) What could be one reason for having multiple miscarriages?
A. Chromosomal abnormality
B. Unhealthy diet
C. Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)
D. An abusive father


66) What is the purpose of the third paragraph?
A. To let women know how long the entire process takes
B. To let women know the errors doctors could make during the procedure
C. To let women know what is involved in having a successful PGS
D. Ro let women know how their partner is involved in the process


67) What is an example of aneuploidy?
A. A child with juvenile arthritis
B. A child with allergies to milk
C. A child with crooked teeth
D. A child with down-syndrome


68) According to the passage, what is insurance company’s take on paying for PGS?
A. It is too expensive to pay for
B. PGS doesn’t have enough benefits, making it useless to pay for
C. They won’t pay for it because they don’t like the creators of PGS
D. Those who fight hard enough might be able to get this procedure covered


69) What is the best title for this passage?
A. The Future of Parenting
B. Using New Medical Technology to Produce Healthy Embryos
C. What to Know About Vaginal Delivery
D. PGD? Is it for you?


70) What is the major benefit of undergoing this test?
A. You could prevent yourself from having a child with birth defects
B. Doctors receive a large sum of money
C. You test yourself for any genetic diseases
D. You make the process of getting pregnant longer

Apostrophe Usage


Welcome to our new library! (1) Were happy to announce that our branch is finally open.  This branch is (2) New Yorks biggest branch. (3) Its location is very convenient: you can reach it by bus or train. There are three large sections in our library.  The (4) children’s section is located on the first floor.
This section is huge, but the books are arranged in a very simple way according to (5) they’re genres.  Mr. Hinch is responsible for this (6) sections various educational activities. (7) Mr. Hinches hours are Mon. to Fri from 10: to 3:00. Our huge and well-organized (8) adult’s section is on the second floor. Here you can find books, newspapers, study materials, and online resources. Finally, (9) there’re a big auditorium on the third floor where we are planning to organize exhibitions, lectures, lessons, and other interesting activities.  Come to our library!  We guarantee you (10) wont be disappointed.


51)

1.  A. We’re
     B. We’are
     C. Were’re
     D. correct as is


52)

2.  A. New’s York’s
     B. New Yorks’
     C. New York’s
     D. correct as is


53)

3.  A. Its’
     B. it’s
     C. it’s is
     D. correct as is


54)

4.  A. childrens
     B. childrens'
     C. children
     D. correct as is


55)
5.  A. there
     B. there’re
     C. their
     D. correct as is



Across the country, females are discriminated against, and put down solely because of their gender. The fourteenth amendment reads, “no state shall . . . deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws,” yet the Declaration of Independence proclaims, “...all men are created equal...” So, what does this mean for all the females in the world? Do women not deserve “equal protection under law”? Are females not “created equal”? Either way, discrimination against women is an issue, and it will continue to be one, unless our country makes an initiative to create an equal society.

Because of this discrimination, women, especially Hispanics and African-Americans, are more likely to have trouble paying off their student debt. Women receive less pay than men, which makes education a riskier and more difficult path to take, for women might not be able to pay off their student debt. According to the American Association of University Women (AAUW), three years after graduating from college, the average man has paid 44% of their student debt off, while the average woman has paid only 33%; specifically, latino women have paid 3%, and african-american women have paid 9%. Furthermore, there are only 23 of 500, or 4.6%, of S&P companies with female CEOs, and only 90 out of 535 Congress spots held by women, according to Forbes; this means that our country has created a favor for men over women in important leadership positions. The big question is why? Are women incapable of holding important leadership positions? Definitely not. Indra Nooyi is the CEO of PepsiCo, the second largest food and beverage business in the world, and has accomplished much more than many men and women. Are women just not as smart as men? Absolutely not. Marilyn vos Savant, an American writer, had the Guinness World Record for the highest IQ, with a astonishing score of 228. She was also called the world’s smartest human for a long period of time, because of her shocking score.This all shows that women are just as capable as men, but the stereotypes adults and kids grow up with teach them otherwise. Imagine how much more advanced, capable, and developed our economy would be if we actually utilized the knowledge women could provide, and not just male intelligence; after all, the more the merrier.

As a girl, hearing all the political policies swarming around my head and all the news channels buzzing about the same issues, the lack of effort put into solving our gender injustice concerns me; our country focuses so much on inconsequential drama, and insignificant problems, while a basic right, female equality, is ignored. As told by the AAUW, Maxine Lampe, a public school teacher in the early 70’s, was denied the head-of-household pay, which males usually received, even though her husband was still in graduate school, and she was the main source of income in the family. After complaining to the administration, the board administration explained to Maxine that she didn’t need the increase in salary, since her husband was a professor that could provide them with enough money. Situations similar to Maxine’s worry me, for one day, after working hard to graduate and pay for college, young women could get discriminated against just for being women, and then they would have to rely on men for main income and intelligence, instead of making the most of their education. Whether you’re male or female, imagine your life, if everything you did or wanted was based off of your gender: what if you were highly qualified for your dream job, yet you were rejected because a person, of the other gender, with lower qualifications, seemed “better.” What about if you were running for a leadership position at your, or your child’s, school, and you lost, simply, because voters thought that your gender was unfit for the job. All of these situations will become less and less likely if, as a country, we forget about gender roles, and see each and every person for who they truly are. Otherwise, you, your wife, your daughter, your niece, or really any female in you life, could be disregarded of their real capabilities.

As the president of the United States of America, I ask that you take charge and create an equal nation, to the best of your ability. Discrimination and inequality are both inevitable in this world, but if you, the leader of our country, teach everyone that women and men are equal, then, I believe, our country would accommodate to this, and begin to practice what you preach. Unlike other issues, there is no policy or law you can create that would fix gender injustice, but we can voice our opinions and spread awareness. Female equality is a worldwide problem that has to be educated to everyone, regardless of their age, gender, nationality, sexuality, and ethnicity. Women around the world are getting treated so poorly; we are getting paid less, treated worse, deprived of education, judged by gender roles, and so much more. Together, as a country, we have to work to fix this injustice, and make sure that all genders, not just females, get equal treatment.

81) What is the main idea of this passage?
A. GMOs have become popular in the food industry.
B. Organic food is more beneficial to the environment and consumers.
C. People should never buy food that contains any GMOs.
D. Organic food costs too much and should not be bought.

82) Which of these statements would the author most likely agree with?
A. People should have an all-GMO food diet.
B. All people should become vegans.
C. People should switch to non-GMO foods.
D. The food industry is less advanced today than it ever was before.

83) What is one of the reasons not listed as to why organic foods are more beneficial?
A. They are healthier for children to consume.
B. They are fresher to consume.
C. They contain more nutrients.
D. They are less harmful towards the environment.

84) What is the meaning of ‘industrial agriculture’ as used in the passage?
A. Farms that produce limited amounts of food.
B. Farms that produce large amounts of food to sell to a large group of people for a profit.
C. Farms that only sell produce.
D. Farms that only sell meat and dairy.

85) All of these are true except…
A. Organic food consists of natural ingredients.
B. Organic food is not genetically modified.
C. Organic food is more costly than regular food.
D. Organic food is less costly than regular food.

86) If true, which of the following statements would weaken the author’s statement?
A. People who eat only organic food are less likely to fall ill.
B. People who eat GMOs are not any less healthy than those who do not.
C. The environment is deteriorating due to GMOs.
D. 3 people have been reported dead due to consumption of GMOs.

87) What does the term ‘conventionally’ as used in the second paragraph mean?
A. Typically
B. Out of the ordinary
C. Distinctly
D. Pugnaciously

88) This author probably did not take which of these statements into consideration?
A. GMOs are proven to be as healthy as non GMOs.
B. GMOs are harmful towards the environment.
C. Organic foods are more costly.
D. Organic foods are less harmful towards the environment.

89) Organic food costs more money because…
A. They are made by children
B. They contain magic ingredients.
C. They are always perfect quality.
D. They are made by independent farmers.

90) Correct the following statement.
The author believes organic food is too expensive to be bought.

A. The author believes the extra cost is worth the organic foods.
B. The statement is correct.
C. The author believes the organic food is too cheap to be of good quality.
D. The author prefers GMOs.

Apostrophe Usage

Choose the answer that corrects the sentence.

47) Is that cake your’s?

A.As it is
B. Is that your cake?
C. Is that cake your?
D. Is that your’s cake?

48) “Its a very difficult exam,” said the teacher.

A.  As it is
B. “Its’ a very difficult exam,” said the teacher.
C. “It’s a very difficult exam,” said the teacher.
D. “I’ts a very difficult exam,” said the teacher.

49) Whose dog is that?

A. As it is
B.Who’s dog is that?
C.Whos’ dog is that?
D. All of the above are possible answers.

Choose the answer that changes the following sentences to show possession.

50) Jane and Mark cats were bought from the same breeder.

A. Jane’s and Mark’s cats.
B.Janes’ and Mark’s cats.
C. Janes and Marks cats.
D. Janes and Marks’ cats.



SHSAT Practice

Grammar Practice

93) Which of these statements would the author most likely agree with?
A. Ballet does not require much skill.
B. Ballet dancers should be respected for the entertainment they provide audiences with.
C. Ballet is not expensive.
D. Being a professional dancer is simple.


94) According to the passage ballet requires all of the following except…
A. Artistry
B. Strength
C. Makeup skills
D. Tolerance

95) Which of these statements is NOT true?
A. Ballerinas alter their shoes in the same way.
B. Ballerinas often hinder their body.
C. Ballerinas spend a large amount of money on pointe shoes.
D. Ballerinas feet are different.

96) Which of these is an opinion?
A. Pointe shoes have been around for about 200 years.
B. Ballet is a captivating art form.
C. Ballet requires physical activity.
D. Flexibility is one of the attributes of a great dancer.

97) What does the term tendonitis mean as used in paragraph 3 of the passage.
A. A type of band aid used to relieve pain.
B. A medical cream.
C. A condition of total paralysis.
D. An injury in the tendons.

98) Which of these is a part of a pointe shoe?
A. Stair
B. Door
C. Box
D. Hammer.

99) Which of these would be an appropriate title for paragraph 2 of the passage?
A. “The Anatomy of a Pointe Shoe”
B. “ The Difference Between Modern Times and Ancient Times in Ballet”
C. “The Cost of Ballet”
D. “The Injuries of a Dancer”

100) Which of these is not a way to soften a pointe shoe as stated in the article?
A. Hammering them.
B. Stepping on them.
C. Putting them in a door crack.
D. Putting them in a microwave

A ballerina must look graceful on stage, having beautiful arms and legs, and attaining perfect positions. The strength of an athlete, the flexibility of a gymnast, the focus of a surgeon, and the artistry of an actor are all qualities that make up a ballet dancer; however, perhaps the most important quality is that of endurance and grace. Female ballet dancers must dance on the tips of their toes in special footwear called pointe shoes. These are very painful to wear; nonetheless, a ballerina's job is to make her dancing look painless and simple.

    Pointe shoes have been around since 1832 and are currently produced by many companies around the world using different methods. The most popular of these methods is for the shoes to be created from many layers of special glue, fabric, and cardboard, which create a hard box and shank, the supporting parts of the shoes. The final layer is a beautiful silk which hides the unattractiveness beneath. Once a ballerina receives her shoes, she begins to alter them to her liking. Most ballerinas sew ribbons and elastics of their choice and soften the box of the shoes using a hammer, a door, or by stepping on them. Others glue the inside of their pointe shoes further to make them even harder. Every dancer’s feet are different and require different support. Ultimately, pointe shoes are a costly ordeal because the shoes soften when a ballerina dances in them and soon become unwearable. A ballerina tends to go through 4-8 pairs of shoes per month, each ranging between $80 and $120 depending on the company and specifications.

    Standing, turning, and jumping on the tips of your toes is not simple or painless in the slightest. Ballerinas’ feet and bodies must overcome many injuries to sustain a successful career. Blisters, stress fractures, muscle tears, tendonitis, and many other injuries occur due to the amount of physical work dancers complete every day. Dancers use many innovative products to help ease their pain. Special blister band aids, cremes, and second skin squares, as well as toe tape help a ballerina with annoying blisters overcome her pain. Many different creams, balms, and rituals help dancers keep their body in peak shape and performing gracefully for the audience’s viewing pleasure.

​​The following SHSAT problems were written by ExamIQ students:

101) What is the passage mostly about?
A. The reason behind America’s entering in World War II
B. An explanation of why Franklin Roosevelt was the best president
C. An objective analysis of America’s strategies in the war
D. A summary of Franklin Roosevelt’s speech to Congress

102) As used in the last paragraph, what is the best definition of “infamy”?
A. Reverence
B. Ingenuity
C. Shame
D. Innocence

November 22, 1963 was an emotional day for the entire country. John Fitzgerald
Kennedy, the 35 th President, was assassinated during his visit to Dallas, Texas.


Kennedy hadn’t formally announced his next presidential candidacy, but he traveled
west to speak to American people in different states. The speeches given during the trip
included themes on which his run in 1964 would focus . Winning Texas was very important to
President Kennedy; therefore, he chose to give several speeches. His goal was to bring
Democrats together. On November 21, the President and first lady departed Washington on Air Force One to begin their five-city tour.


People who were excited to see the President and the first lady lined the streets. As the
motorcade was making its way through the streets of Dallas, JFK, who was riding in an open
convertible, was happily waving at the people who lined the streets to see him and greet him.
The president’s motorcade turned off Main Street at Dealey Plaza. The first bullet struck
President Kennedy as his car was passing the Texas School Book Depository. Because of all the loud cheering, most people did not even hear the first shot go off. Those who did might have thought that it had been a firecracker. Suddenly, everyone witnessed the president grab his neck with both hands, realizing that something must have gone terribly wrong. Everyone heard the second and third gunshot as it rang out. It became painfully obvious that the President of the United States was just shot in front of their eyes.


Within minutes, every news broadcast was discussing the shooting. Americans were
glued to their radios and TV screens, waiting to learn the fate of the President. Unfortunately,
at 1:30 pm, America got devastating news. The President was dead. This was a tragedy for his family and the American people. While most Americans mourned the death of President
Kennedy, two very important events took place. Secret Service, FBI, and Dallas police were
frantically looking for a shooter. At that moment,the number of shooters was unknown, how
these people are, where they are hiding, and most importantly how they carried out this
heinous act.


On the other side of town, in Dallas Airport, another important event took place.
Possibly more important than finding the president’s killer was the continuation of government.
The President of the United States was dead, but America still needed a president. Vice
President Lyndon B. Johnson needed to be sworn in as soon as possible. It was decided that he would take oath of office on board Air Force One before leaving Dallas. Vice President Johnson asked Jacqueline Kennedy to stay next to him while being sworn in, even though he knew it would be difficult for her. The reason that he wanted her to be present was because he wanted people to accept the legitimacy of his presidency. As a final act as First Lady, Jackie Kennedy agreed to do it. Although she purposely did not change out of her blood-stained clothes, saying, “Let them see what they have done to him”.

President Kennedy’s funeral was one of the toughest days in recent American History
The youngest president to ever take office, he never had the chance to finish a full term as
president. Through his life, even more so through his death, John F. Kennedy became the most iconic in the US’s history. Throughout his presidency, President Kennedy laid out ambitious goals for the future of the country. The biggest of the goals was the dream of putting men on the moon. Even though Kennedy did not live long enough to see his ideas come to life, his legacy will live forever through the hard work and dedication of the American people, who worked tirelessly to realize his goals.

    Organic food consists of natural ingredients and is produced naturally and not altered. Growth hormones, genetic modification, and antibiotics are not used when organic food is grown because they are not natural. Additionally, pests such as bugs, and weeds are restrained and ceased through natural methods. Organic meat comes from animals that eat a healthy diet of organic foods and roam freely, as well as get treated naturally if they ever are ill. Moreover, organic food is very different from “regular food,” or non-organic food.Most regular produce, dairy, and meat are treated with genetically modified organisms (GMOs) to improve their quality and chemicals to rid of pests. For example, non organic foods are grown using synthetic pesticides and fertilizers. Organic food is produced by independent farmers because non organic food factories have taken over most of the food industry. The independent farmers’ produce is naturally grown and the animals from which the meat comes are naturally raised.

    Organic foods are definitely beneficial to humans and the environment. Since organic food does not contain chemical preservatives, it is fresher to consume. Organic foods are GMO-free, and organic plants and animals are not treated with any potential harmful chemicals. Also, organic food has more nutrients as compared to regular food. As displayed on www.organic.org, “Results of a 2016 study show that levels of certain nutrients , including omega-3 fatty acids, were up to 50% higher in organic meat and milk than in conventionally raised versions.” Organic food also benefits the environment. Water is conserved, there is reduction of soil erosion and in pollution.Overall, the environment is a better place when filled with organic foods for humans and all organisms.

    Industrial organic food is grown in a large quantity for companies to make a profit. therefore , most foods can be bought anywhere at any season. For example, fresh strawberries can be purchased in the middle of the winter, which is not strawberry season at all. The buyers and consumers of such foods do not interact with the farmers who produced the foods since it is sold through a large company.  Industrial agriculture negatively impacts the environment and human health. Chemicals cause different types of pollution and large amounts are harmful to humans. The government and the food industry lower the price on non organic food, which is financially detrimental to the farmers who produce the food.

     Eating organic food is worth paying extra money. Organic food is healthier for humans, as well as beneficial towards the environment. Organic food costs extra money because it comes from independent farmers, not from industries that receive commodities or produce and meats. Buying organic foods supports the organic farmers and allows them to keep producing organic food. Not only does organic food benefit humans’ health and the environment,but it also contains more nutrients and tastes better than non-organic foods.

131. What is the passage mostly about?
A. Peter Stuyvesant’s accomplishments
B. A New Yorker that many don’t know about
C. A list of monuments in New York named after famous people
D. An explanation of why Stuyvesant high school is so good

132. Infer why the exact date of Peter Stuyvesant’s death is unknown?
A. His body was found in a ditch and doctors couldn’t figure out the exact date of death
B. His housewife was off the day he died and wasn’t able to record the information
C. The date is cursed and his wife didn’t want it to be shared
D. New Yorkers didn’t care enough about Stuyvesant to spread the word about his death

Analyze the underlined word and choose the answer choice that will correct the apostrophe error.

31) Today is Katherines, Mike’s, and my eight-year anniversary with the company.

A.  No change
B.  Remove the s
C.  Add an apostrophe before the s in Katherines
D.  Add an apostrophe after the s in Katherines


32) The personalities of the three interns’ are extremely unalike.

A.  No change
B.  Remove the apostrophe
C.  Move the apostrophe before the s
D.  Remove the apostrophe and add an es after the s


33) Mr. Johnson is known for always carrying picture’s of his children.

A.  No change
B.  Move the apostrophe after the s
C.  Remove the s
D.  Remove the apostrophe


34) The sound of the six jet planes’s engines was thunderous.

A.  No change
B.  Remove the additional s and move the apostrophe between the e and s in planes
C.  Remove the additional s
D.  Remove the additional s and the apostrophe

  
35) Valentines Day is my least favorite holiday this year because my husband left me for another woman.

A. No change
B. Add an apostrophe before s
C.  Remove the s
D.  Add an apostrophe after s
 
36) He’s America’s fastest freestyle swimmer.

A.  No change
B.  Add an apostrophe after s
C. Remove the apostrophe
D.  Remove the s and the apostrophe


37) The banker was supposed to give me ten dollars worth of singles.

A.  No change
B.  Add an apostrophe after s
C. Add an apostrophe before s
D.  Remove the s


38) The students unanimous votes for Gianna allowed her to become class president, without any disagreements from the students.

A.  No change
B.  Add an apostrophe after s
C.  Remove the s
D.  Add an apostrophe before the s
  
39) Isn’t the drawing your’s?

A. No change
B.  Remove the s
C.  Remove the apostrophe
D.  Move the apostrophe after the s

40) The 69 BMW was the cheapest car at the dealership.

A.  No change
B.  Add an apostrophe before 69
C. Add an apostrophe after 69
D.  Add two apostrophes after 69

Read the following passage and answer questions 71 through 80.

91) What is the author’s main purpose for writing this article?
A. To inform the reader of the different brands of pointe shoes.
B. To convince the reader to become a ballet dancer.
C. To discuss the overall concerns of pointe shoes and dancers who use them.
D. To complain about the difficulties of ballet.

92) Which of these was not mentioned as one of the injuries a dancer can experience?
A. Broken bones
B. Tendonitis
C. Stress fractures
D. Blisters.

121) What is the passage mostly about?
A. The reason why Lyndon B. Johnson became President
B. The reason why Jackie Kennedy was cursed
C. An explanation of JFK’s death
D. A conformation of a conspiracy theory of how President Kennedy died


122) How many shots were fired at the President’s vehicle?
A. 6
B. 3
C. 2
D. 19


123) What street was the motorcade on when the president got shot?
A. Main Street
B. Texas School Book Depository
C. 13 th Street
D. Dealey Plaza


124) What was the purpose of the president’s visit to Texas?
A. For campaign purposes
B. To visit his family
C. To meet with his new possible security agency
D. To shut down rumors going around about him


125) What was the reason Mrs. Kennedy decided to not change out of the clothing she was wearing?
A. All her clothing had already been removed from the White House
B. She wanted to show off her expensive outfit
C. She was too aggravated to change into another outfit
D. Her stylist wasn’t around to choose an outfit for Jackie to wear

126) Of the shots fired, how many hit John F. Kennedy?
A. 3
B. 2
C. 1
D. 0


127) Why did Johnson want the First Lady next to him during his inauguration?
A. He wanted people to take him seriously
B. Her presence would honor her husband’s legacy
C. He wanted her to continue to be the First Lady
D. Jacqueline made the decision herself to be present during the inauguration


128) What made John F. Kennedy unusual from the former presidents?
A. He was the first Jewish president
B. He was the first president to get assassinated
C. He had the most servants
D. He was the youngest president


129) What security change could have prevented President Kennedy from being shot?
A. The amount of secret security around
B. The day he visited Dallas
C. The ideas for his new campaign run
D. The type of car he was driving in


130. What was one goal that President Kennedy didn’t live long enough to see?
A. Building a major league baseball stadium in Washington D.C.
B. Sending a man to the moon
C. Extending the number of terms to 3
D. Painting the white house a different color

Read the following passage and answer questions 101 through 110.

Read the following passage and answer questions 91 through 100.

In New York City, many streets and landmarks are named after famous people who were
of importance in the history of this city or this country. Lincoln Tunnel, Verrazano Bridge,
Hudson River, Columbus Circle, George Washington Bridge, and Stuyvesant High School. If
you were to ask most people who Washington and Lincoln were, they will readily tell you that
they were American presidents. Ask the same people who Christopher Columbus, Giovanni da Verrazano, and Henry Hudson were, and you would probably hear mixed answers. Most know who Columbus was, and some might know that Verrazano and Hudson were explorers. Now ask those people who Peter Stuyvesant was. Peter who? Peter Stuyvesant. Many New Yorkers most likely don’t know that Peter Stuyvesant played an important role in the history of New York.


New Amsterdam, as modern New York City used to be called, in the early 1640s was a
mess. Trash was strewn about the muddy streets, drunken sailors and farm animals ambled about, and New Netherland’s small population was huddled up in Manhattan after a bruising war against local Native American tribes. Enter Peter Stuyvesant. On May 27, 1647, he took over as Director General of New Netherland, for the Dutch West India Company, telling the assembled crowd that he would “govern you as a father his children.” He would play the stern father in New Netherland until 1664, when the Dutch surrendered control of the colony to the British.


“Peg-legged" Peter Stuyvesant was the last director general under Netherland’s control.
Today, his tittle is known as a mayor. Born in the Netherlands to a minister, he joined the West
India Company when he was a young man, and became the director of the Dutch West India
Company’s colony in Curaçao in 1642. That’s where he lost his leg in an attack on the Spanish-held island of Saint Martin.


Peter Stuyvesant had a reputation for being a tough, rule-bound leader. In 1647 he began
his tenure as director general of New Amsterdam, immediately attempting to reform the colony by regulating liquor sales, creating sanitation collections, and punishing those who were not members of the Dutch Reformed church. As a result of his strict rule, the people of New Amsterdam put up little resistance when English warships showed up in 1664, and Stuyvesant was forced to surrender the city to the English navy under Colonel Richard Nolis.


Stuyvesant died in August 1672.In his life, Stuyvesant set New York City on course of
becoming one of the most known cities in the world. His body is now entombed in St. Mark’s
Church on tenth Street and second Avenue, which sits atop the site of the old Stuyvesant family chapel. If it weren’t Stuyvesant’s accomplishments, New York would not have been the same. To honor his legacy, several landmarks in New York City are named after him, including a prestigious high school in Manhattan.

13.  To correct error 3, you must

    A.  Leave it as is
    B.  Add an apostrophe after s in groups
    C.  Delete the apostrophe
    D.  Delete the apostrophe and the s


14.  To correct error 4

     A.  Leave it as is
     B.  Delete the comma
     C.  Switch the comma to a colon
     D.  Switch the comma to a semicolon


15.  What is the best way to fix the quote 
     marked 5?


     A.  Leave it as is
     B.  Change want to need
     C.  Add a period before the quote
     D.  Add a comma before the quote


16.  To fix error 6

    A.  Leave it as is
    B.  Change the colon to a semicolon
    C.  Change the colon to a comma
    D.  Delete the colon


17.   To correct error 7

     A.  Leave it as is
     B.  Delete the comma
     C.  Add a comma after two

     D.  Add a comma before again


18. What is the best way to combine sentences 22-24?

    A.  Many would call the, once again, two intrepid and exceptional boys  “born leaders”.
    B.  Once again, the two boys are intrepid and exceptional, while they are called

         “born leaders” by many.
    C.  The two boys, once again are called intrepid and exceptional by many.

    D.  Many people call the “born leaders” intrepid and fearless men.


19. What is the best way to fix error 8

     A.  Leave it as is
     B.  Put the period inside the quote
     C.  Delete the period
     D.  Turn the period into a comma

20. What should be fixed in the second to last sentence to make it grammatically correct?

     A.  Leave it as is
     B.  Quote for quotes
     C.  Ralph’s for Ralphs
     D.  Delete the comma


11.  What is the best way to correct error 1?

     A.  Leave as it is
     B.  Delete the comma after which
     C.  Instead of , in which, place a semicolon
     D.  Delete both commas

12.  What is the best way to correct error 2?

     A.  Leave as it is
     B.  Add a colon instead of trapped, without
     C.  Add a comma before trapped
     D.  Delete the comma 


Read the following passage and answer questions 81 through 90.

Punctuation


41)  Jill’s clothes looked really nice, however, Alex’s clothes looked horrible.

A.  Add a comma after clothes
B. Remove the comma after however
C. Add a comma before clothes
D.  Change the comma after nice into a semicolon

42)  He, however, looked silly, and foolish.

A. Change the comma after he into a semicolon
B.  Add a colon after looked
C.  Remove the comma after however
D.  Remove the comma after silly

43)  The people who will run in the marathon are: Adam, Barry, and Chad.

A.  Add a comma after people
B.  Remove the colon after are
C.  Remove the comma after Barry
D.  Add a comma after run

44)  It is the peoples’ decision on who becomes president.

A. Change is into are
B. Change who into whom
C. Change peoples’ into people’s
D. Add a comma after decision

45)  The fast talking man was hard to understand.

A. Add a hyphen between fast and talking
B.  Add a comma after talking
C.  Add a comma after man
D.  Add a hyphen between talking and man

46)  Some butterflies have unique and beautiful patterns, they usually scare away predators.

A.  Add a comma after butterflies
B. Add a comma after unique
C.  Add a colon after have
D.  Change the comma into a semicolon

December 7, 1941 started as a typical Sunday morning in Hawaii. It was a
beautiful day with just a few clouds in the sky. Just before 8am, the shadows of
Japanese bomber planes had 1. filled the sky and the silence of a beautiful morning was ripped apart by a roar of their engines. Within minutes, the only noise uglier than the roar of the engines was the whistling of the bombs falling through the air. It was
followed by earth-shuddering explosions as the bombs started to hit their targets. The
attack lasted about 2 hours, damaging nearly 20 American naval vessels. This event
forever became a part of American history, known as the Attack on Pearl Harbor.


World War II had been raging in Europe since 1939. United States chose not to enter
the European conflict, yet US supported the war effort by providing supplies to their
allies. However, when the United States was directly attacked by the Imperial Japan, the
ally of Nazi Germany, it entirely changed the position of the United States. The very next
day, President Roosevelt, with the approval of Congress, declared war on Japan.


American intelligence officials were confident that the war would remain in
Europe; therefore, the facilities in Pearl Harbor remained relatively undefended. Hawaii
was 12,000 miles away from Japan, making it an unreasonable location to bomb. Little
did they know, Japan wanted to increase their territory, no matter how far, to help solve
economic issues. The attack caught America off guard. The Japanese significantly
damaged all the battleships docked at Pearl Harbor. Unfortunately for Japan, the
devastation they delivered in Pearl Harbor did not cripple the American Pacific Fleet. By
the early 1940’s, the might of the US naval forces lied in aircraft carriers, not battleships.
Luckily, the aircraft carriers were away from base at time of unprovoked attack. As a result, the United States was able to rebound fairly quickly from this temporary defeat.


All in all, Attack on Pearl Harbor was a very important event in the history of the
United States. The consequences of the US entering World War II were far more
reaching than ever foreseen. It led to the raising of an “Iron Curtain” the East and West,
arms race between the United States and USSR, and the Cold War. In the words of
President Roosevelt, this attack will be remembered as “a date which will live in infamy”
forever.

56)
6.  A. sections’
     B. sections
     C. section’s
     D. correct as is

57)
7.  A. Mr. Hinch’es
     B. Mr. Hinch’s
     C. Mr. Hinchs’
     D. correct as is

58)
8.  A. adults’
     B. adults
     C. adults’s
     D. correct as is

59)
9.  A. they’re
     B. there’s
     C. theres’s
     D. correct as is


60)
10.  A. wont
       B. won’t
       C. wont’s
       D. correct as is

​​Reading Comprehension

Read the following passage and answer the questions to follow
PGS is the new fashion trend in the field of IVF. PGS, also known as
preimplantation genetic screening, refers to the process of taking a cell of the embryo to
be analyzed for chromosomal abnormality. PGS is not to be confused with PGD, which
screens the embryos for known genetic diseases.
PGS is done to screen out aneuploidy. In a normal scenario the embryo receives
23 chromosomes from each parent. Aneuploidy is the presence of a number of
chromosomes, other than the usual of 46, in the embryo. If the embryo has more or less
chromosomes than needed, the embryo will be aneuploidic. Aneuploidic embryos can
lead to miscarriages, failed implantation or a child born with birth defects.
With advanced technology, doctors are able to screen out abnormality in the
embryo. After the embryo is created, it grows in an incubator for 5 to 6 days. Then, an
embryologist will do a biopsy on the embryo. The biopsy is done by taking out a cell
from where the placenta would form. Taking a cell from this part of the embryo will not
harm the embryo in the future. The cell is sent to the laboratory for analyzation, which
takes about 7 to 10 days. In the meantime, the embryos are frozen. Once the results
come back, the doctor will choose the best embryo(s) to put back. The uterus is then
prepared for implantation of the chosen embryo(s).
All in all, PGS has improved the chances of a healthy pregnancy for women of
advanced maternal age, 35 and above, and women with infertility issues and recurrent
pregnancy losses. Unfortunately, most insurance companies do not cover this
procedure, which creates a big out of pocket burden on families. Hopefully, insurance
companies will become more educated about the benefits of this procedure and will
include the test in their coverage. Some women choose not to go against insurance
companies, some try and give up, but there are those who will choose to fight. Their
fight will benefit not only themselves, but also service future parents struggling with the
same challenges in trying to achieve a pregnancy and a healthy child.

This essay has been written to explain a power struggle between two of the main characters in a novel called The Lord of the Flies.




In this particular novel, Jack and Ralph engage in a very irksome power struggle, in which,1both are suited for the leadership of their two groups and the threatening dangers of the island on which they are trapped, without 2any adult supervision or the necessary components that would help keep them from the jaws of the hungry predators on the island. However, with this major similarity Jack and Ralph possess comprehensively heterogeneous objectives and perceptions of their group’s survival 3. Jack  never pays much attention to their shelter, since he, with his group, mostly cared about the slaughter of an impecunious pig that lived on the island, whereas Ralph pensively thinks about building their shelters and devouring the fruits they have, before 4hunting prey. Ralph's quote, “Well we haven’t gotten any yet. And we want shelters” explains how Ralph doesn’t seem very concerned about the meat  compared to the apprehension Ralph causes about the   construction of their shelters. Jack’s quote, “We want meat” 5, discusses the situation in which he: chose6 hunting the  meat down with his choir group instead of collaborating and  building the shelters.

Besides the differences, once again, the two 7 boys are intrepid and exceptional leaders. They would be called “born leaders” by many. Jack was normally the leader of the choir boys even before the debacle. A detail delineating this is, “The boy who controlled them was dressed the same way though his cap badge was golden"Ralph's leadership quote,  “Ralph counted- I’m chief then,” portrays how he became chief of the remaining kids. Therefore, both Ralph and Jack were two powerful leaders who engaged in a serious power struggle with different ideas.

71) What is the main idea of the passage?


A. Men are better than female
B. America is a bad country
C. Women should be paid more
D. Our country should take steps towards being equal to both genders

72)  What percent of S&P companies have female leaders?

A. 23%
B. 4.6%
C. 33%
D. 8.7%

73) Why did the author most likely include the paragraph about Maxine Lampe?
A. To make readers feel sympathetic for Maxine
B. To show readers that women are affected by the discrimination in jobs
C. To show women that they should rely on men for income
D. To make women complain to administrations

74) Which of the following was not mentioned in the passage to show the discrimination in the country?
A. Bill of Rights
B. Percent of female CEOs
C. Student debt burden
D. Maxine Lampe’s story

75) Based on the passage, what is one way the women suffer from having a smaller salary than men?
A. They can’t get elected for leadership positions
B. They have a harder time paying their student debt
C. They can’t support their families
D. They don’t

76) What does AAUW stand for?
A. American Association of Unstable Women
B. American Association of Underpaid Women
C. American Association of University Women
D. American Association of Uneducated Women

77) What does inevitable mean in “Discrimination and inequality are both inevitable in this world, but if you, the leader of our country, teach everyone that women and men are equal, then, I believe, our country would accommodate to this, and begin to practice what you preach”?
A. Needed
B. Inconsequential
C. Bad
D. Unavoidable

78) Which paragraph would a reader read if they wanted to know how we can improve our society?
A. Paragraph 1
B. Paragraph 2
C. Paragraph 3
D. Paragraph 4

79) What is the author’s purpose?
A. To entertain readers with a story about Maxine Lampe
B. To persuade readers that our country is unfair
C. To inform readers about the discrimination that women in America face
D. To teach readers about the Declaration of Independence

80) The author is most likely a
A. Senator
B. Female activist
C. Lawyer
D. Canadian citizen

The Friesian breed was developed in the province of
Friesland in the northern Netherlands, where there is evidence of
thousands of years of horse populations, and this breed is said to
have descended from the primitive Forest Horse. The Romans used
the breed for riding. Furthermore, it is said that Romans took Friesian
horses to England, where the breed influenced the Shire, Clydesdale,
Fell, and Dales. Once thought to be ugly, this northern-European-
mainland breed is now considered among the most beautiful of
horses. "Black is [now indeed] beautiful." Friesians were used in
medieval times to carry knights to battle in full armor. In the 12th and
13th centuries, some eastern horses of crusaders were mated with
Friesian stock. Sometime after the Middle Ages came to an end, the
Friesian breed was dying out. Soon there were only two left:
fortunately, male and female. They were carefully captured and bred
in an attempt to bring back the breed. During the 16th and 17th
centuries, when there was less demand for heavy war horses as
battle arms changed and, especially, when Spanish forces occupied
the Netherlands during the Eighty Years' War, Andalusian blood was
added to lighten the breed in order to lighten its weight and thereby
render it more suitable (in terms of less food intake and waste
output) for work as a more urban carriage horse. Friesians were also
used by riding schools in France and Spain for high-school dressage,
and they remain a student-favored breed to this day for their gentle
temperaments and proud dark beauty. The breed was especially
popular in the 18th and 19th centuries, when they were not only in
demand as harness horses and for agricultural work, but also for the
trotting races, which were popular back then. The Friesian was used
as foundation stock for breeds such as the Orlov Trotter, the Norfolk
Trotter (ancestor of the Hackney), and the Morgan. In the 1800s the
Friesian was bred to be lighter and faster for trotting; however, this
led to what some owners and breeders regarded as an inferior stock,
so a sort of revolt and call for a return to pureblood stock took place
by the end of the century. The Friesian stud registry book, Friesch
Paarden Stamboek (FPS) was founded in 1879 by a group of Dutch
farmers dedicated to preserving the breed. Friesians had become
popular for crossbreeding due to their fantastic trot, presence, and
color, and as a result, Friesian "purity" was severely threatened. The
"Royal Society Het Friesch Paarden-Stamboek" was founded to
protect and promote the breed's bloodline. Friesian horse
populations then dwindled in the early 20th century partly due to
displacement by petroleum-powered farm equipment and passenger
vehicles. Due to fuel rationing during World War II, the Friesian’s
farm and carriage use was revived, saving the breed long enough for
both its population and popularity to rebound. The Friesian also
influenced the "Old Black Horse" of the U.S. farm belt (especially in
the Midwest, where erratic and unseasonal weather often
paddocked less robust breeds) and the Dole Gudbrandsdal of
Norway, and formed the stock base for Germany's Marbach stud,
contributing to the development of both the Oldenburg and the
Württemberg breeds. Today, there are two distinct conformation
types. The baroque type has the more robust build of the classical
Friesian. The modern, sport horse type is finer boned. Conformation
type is judged less important than correct movement, and both types
are still common today.

Directions: Read the passage below to answer questions 6-10.

The long debated topic of Russian meddling in the 2016 United States Election has caused controversy throughout the democratic and republican parties. (2) Although the rumor has been refuted by president Donald Trump, the liberal supporters still believe that Russia was the cause of his election. (3) The Democrats have staged protests, executing the first amendment right, against Trump since he was elected and jumped at any opportunity to criticize him for his wrong doings. (4) Since he had no prior position in government before he ran for president, many believe that he worked closely with the Russians to hack his way into the administration. (5) Whether or not Russia intruded into the election, it can be agreed that the government must keep a closer eye on foreign affairs.

6) What correction should be made in sentence 1?

A.  Change democratic and republican parties to Democratic and republican parties
B.  Change democratic and republican parties to Democratic and Republican Parties
C.  Change Russian to russian
D.  Change United States Election to United States election

7) Which of the following answers best eliminates the use of passive voice in sentence 2?

A.  Although the rumor has been refuted by president Donald Trump, the liberal supporters still believe that Russia was the cause of his election.
B.  Although the rumor has been refuted by president Donald Trump; the liberal supporters still believe that Russia was the cause of his election.
C.  Although President Donald Trump has refuted the rumor, the liberal supporters still believe that Russia was the cause of his election.
D.  The liberal supporters still believe that Russia was the cause of his election, although President Donald Trump has refuted the rumor.


8) Which revision of sentence 3 uses commas correctly?

A.  The Democrats have staged protests, executing the first amendment right, against Trump since he was elected and jumped at any opportunity to criticize him for his wrong doings.
B.  The Democrats have staged protests executing the first amendment right against Trump since he was elected and jumped at any opportunity to criticize him for his wrong doings.
C.  The Democrats have staged protests, executing the first amendment right, against Trump, since he was elected and jumped at any opportunity to criticize him for his wrong doings.
D.  The Democrats have staged protests; executing the first amendment right; against Trump since he was elected and jumped at any opportunity to criticize him for his wrong doings.

9) What sentence can be removed from the paragraph without detracting of its main ideas?

A.  Sentence 1
B.  Sentence 2

C.  Sentence 3

D.  Sentence 4
E.  Sentence 5

10) What is the best title for this passage?

A.  Russian Meddling in the United States Election
B.  Russian Hacking

C.  The Foreign Affairs of the United States

D.  Reasons Why President Trump is Unsuited for Presidency

111) What is the passage most likely about?
                        A) Why the Friesian horse still amazes all the people around the world
                        B) How the Friesian horse was used in battle in full armor
                        C) The history of the Friesian horse
                        D) The origin of the Friesian breed

112) The Friesian horse was used for all of the following EXCEPT
                        A) Battle horses
                        B) Carriage horses
                        C) Schools for dressage
                        D) Horse racing

113) The Friesian breed was dying out
                        A) In the 19th century
                        B) Consequently when the Middle Ages was coming to an end
                        C) During the Middle Ages
                        D) Consequently to the beginning of the Middle Ages

114) The word “render” most likely means
                        A) Make
                        B) Create
                        C) Control
                        D) Take

115) The author’s thinks that the Friesian horse is
                        A) Unseemly
                        B) Grisly
                        C) Appalling
                        D) Exquisite

116) The word “erratic" most likely means
                        A) Stable
                        B) Unpredictable
                        C) Steady
                        D) Seasonal

117) According to the passage, what was the main problem with the Friesian crossbreeding?
                        A) There was a lack of food for all of the horses
                        B) Farmers didn’t like the outcomes of the bred Friesians
                        C) The number of purebloods had to be reserved
                        D) The bred horses were slower than the purebloods

118) The stud registry book, Friesch Paarden Stamboek, was
                        A) dedicated to preserving the Friesian purebloods
                        B) promote the breed’s bloodline
                        C) dedicated to eradicating the breed
                        D) dedicated to breed the Friesians with other breeds

119) The word “stud” most likely means
                        A) group of animals kept for breeding, esp. horses
                        B) group of animals kept for resources
                        C) group of fouls raised by farmers
                        D) group of animals kept for population


120) According to the passage, the number of Friesians used in war decreased because
                        A) the battle arms changed
                        B) all of the variety of transportation was available
                        C) the weather was bad during war

                        D) the Friesian breed was dying out

21) Although he was sick for most of the week, John still received 5 days pay for his absence.

A.  MAKE NO CHANGE
B.  Change days into day’s
C.  Change days into days’
D.  Change absence into absence’

22) Aaron’s and Barry’s essay was better than the other groups’ essays.

A.  MAKE NO CHANGE
B.  Change Aaron’s into Aaron
C.  Change Barry’s into Barry
D.  Change groups’ into group’s


23) It’s interesting to walk around a museum and look at the many paintings; the artists each spent countless hours on their works of art.

A.  MAKE NO CHANGE
B.  Change paintings into painting’s
C.  Change artists into artist’s
D.  Change hours into hour’s

24) The government is one of the many parts’ of what helps keep the U.S. economy striving.

A.  MAKE NO CHANGE
B.  Change government into Government
C.  Change parts’ into parts
D.  Change helps into help’s


25) Who’s broken pencils are these?

A.  MAKE NO CHANGE
B.  Change pencils into pencil’s
C.  Change pencils into pencils’
D.  Change Who’s into Whose

26) Your being completely disrespectful to all of the authorities.

A.  MAKE NO CHANGE
B.  Change Your into You’re
C.  Change authorities into authority’s
D. 
Change authorities into authorities’

27) When men took a random wallet from the table, my friend confronted them and told them that it’s not theirs.


A.  MAKE NO CHANGE
B.  Change it’s into its
C.  Change theirs into their
D.  Change theirs into their’s


28) After months of stressful work, Alex is taking a two day’s rejuvenation at home.

A.  MAKE NO CHANGE
B.  Change day’s into days
C.  Change months into month’s
D.  Change day’s into days’


29) Hannah and (1)Nancy’s cats love playing together whenever Hannah visits (2)Nancy’s home.

A.  MAKE NO CHANGE
B.  Change (1)Nancy’s into Nancy
C.  Change cats into cats’
D.  Change Hannah into Hannah’s


30) The childrens activities consisted of mainly math and ELA SHSAT practice.

A.  MAKE NO CHANGE
B.  Change childrens into children
C.  Change childrens into children’s
D.  Change children into childrens’

 

Read this sentence:


Despite its six-year time span, world war II was triggered by conflicts that began between its participants before its reign; therefore, the war’s main combatants were the axis powers of Nazi Germany and the Empire of Japan versus the allied powers of the United States, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, and China.

1) Which revision is most necessary to correct this sentence?

A.  Change six-year to 6 year
B.  Change world war II to World War II
C.  Change Nazi Germany to nazi Germany
D.  Change its to it’s


2) Read the following sentence


A $700,000 offer was given on the apartment: but the owner would not go a penny under his asking price of $725,000.

Which revision is most necessary to correct this sentence?

A.  No revision needed
B.  Change apartment: to apartment;
C.  Change apartment: to apartment,
D.  Change apartment: to Apartment:


3) Read the following sentence


Serena was competent, affable, and gregarious; she was admired by many of her coworkers.

Which transition word should be added to the sentence?

A.  Although,
B.  Similarly,
C.  Finally,
D.  Therefore,


4) Read the following sentence


Lillian needed to purchase milk, apples, some bananas, frozen ravioli, and buy a chocolate cake as well.

How should this sentence be revised to reflect parallelism?

A.  No revision
B.  Lillian needed to purchase milk, apples, bananas, frozen ravioli, a chocolate cake as well.
C.  Lillian needed to purchase milk, apples, bananas, frozen ravioli, a chocolate cake.
D.  Milk, apples, bananas, frozen ravioli, a chocolate cake needed to be purchased by Lillian.


5) Read the following sentence


The devastating event of September 11th , a terrorist attack by the group Al-Qaeda, left over heartbreaking ruins; in addition, over 2000 innocent people were killed that fateful morning.

Which is not one of the grammar rules shown in the sentence?

A.  Appositive
B.  Word Choice
C.  Ambiguous Pronoun
D.  Independent clause; conjunctive adverb, independent clause.